Implementation Tools
Teaching and Learning
Standard 1: Curricula


Culturally, socially and linguistically relevant curricula are used to provide formal and non-formal education, appropriate to the particular context and needs of learners.


  Teaching
Brophy, J., International Academy of Education, International Bureau of Education, UNESCO - 1999
This booklet, part of the Educational Practices Series, provides a synthesis of principles for effective teaching, addressing generic aspects of curriculum, instruction and assessment, as well as classroom organization and management practices that support effective instruction. It focuses on learning outcomes but with recognition of the need for a supportive classroom climate and positive student attitudes toward schooling, teaching and classmates.

 Spanish 
Enseñanza: Serie Prácticas Educativas

Brophy, J. (International Academy of Education, International Bureau of Education, UNESCO) - 1999
Este folleto, parte de la Serie Prácticas Educativas, ofrece una síntesis de principios para enseñanza efectiva, atendiendo aspectos genéricos del plan de estudios, instrucción y valoración, así como la organización del aula y las prácticas de gestión que apoyan instrucción efectiva. Se centra en los resultados del aprendizaje, pero con el reconocimiento de la necesidad de un clima de apoyo en la aula y actitudes positivas de los estudiantes hacia la escuela, la enseñanza y compañeros de clase.

  Alternative education: Filling the gap in emergency and post-conflict situations
CfBT and UNESCO IIEP - 2009
This policy brief looks at how alternative education programmes respond to the diverse education needs of children and youth affected by emergencies and conflict. It also analyses the challenges in implementation of alternative education programmes in post-conflict settings and puts forward policy recommendations for their sustainable planning and coordination. This policy brief is based on findings presented in the book Alternative education: Filling the gap in emergency and post-conflict situations, by Pamela Baxter and Lynne Bethke.

  Characteristics of Successful Health Education Programmes to Prevent HIV/AIDS
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, UNESCO - 2004
This tool identifies the characteristics of successful HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes. These include the provision of accurate information; addressing social influences on sexual behaviors; and age-appropriateness, targeting students in different age groups and at different stages of development.

  Examples of Educational Strategies to Promote Environmental Health
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, UNESCO - 2004
This tool describes the contribution that skills-based health education brings to efforts aimed at creating a health-supportive physical environment at schools or in communities. In addition, it suggests educational themes and strategies that could form the basis of a curriculum unit to promote environmental health.

  Health Across the Curriculum
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, UNESCO - 2004
This tool provides guidance on integrating health learning in subjects across the curriculum by offering recommendations as to the different ways in which health priorities can be reinforced in different subjects, for instance, in science, mathematics, social studies and language, either in all classes or as a term or half year theme.

  Protect the Quality and Safety of Your Food
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, UNESCO - 2004
This tool provides useful information about protecting the quality and safety of food, including proper storage and handling of foods and caring for children. Teachers and other education personnel could use this information, adapting it to their local context, when teaching basic health and hygiene.

  Quality Checklist for Selecting Skills-based Health Education Materials
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, UNESCO - 2004
This checklist can be used to select new materials or adapt existing materials for use in skills-based education programmes, including health education. It was prepared to assist in the selection and/or adaptation of existing materials for skills-based health education, including life skills. Once completed, an analysis of the answers on the form can be used to determine the quality and usefulness of the resource and which elements may need to be adapted for each local context and purpose.

  Looking at Textbooks from a Gender Perspective: A Framework for Analysis
Kirk, J., International Rescue Committee
This tool provides a framework for analysizing textbooks from a gender perspective.

  The 'immediately, sooner, later' Matrix of Response
Nicolai, S. and Triplehorn, C., Humanitarian Practice Network Paper - 2003
Adapted from the work of Margaret Sinclair and Carl Triplehorn, the matrix of response activities provides examples of a psychosocial, recreational and community services activities as well as a range of formal and non-formal education programme strategies to carry out immediately, sooner and later. Extracted from 'The role of education in protecting children in conflict' in the Humanitarian Practice Network Paper.

  Description of Education Kits
Save the Children - 2003
This brief provides a detailed look into the contents of the following education kits: UNICEF School-in-a-box kit, UNICEF Recreation Kit, the Teacher Emergency Package, and Save the Children UK's Indonesia Classroom Activity Box. From Save the Children's Education in Emergencies toolkit.

  Framework for Learning for Children Affected by Emergencies
Save the Children - 2003
This tool, which emphasizes the need for a holistic, rights-based and participatory approach to education, articulates the purpose, and impact of, the various components of the survival skills, individual and social development skills and academic skills that children learn. It can be used as a tool to advocate for education in emergency and reconstruction contexts. From Save the Children's Education in Emergencies Toolkit.

  Learning Content
Save the Children - 2003
This brief provides background information on how education is organized through curriculum and lesson plans, gives guidance on what skills (survival, developmental, academic), articulates a series of principles for what makes learning effective and outlines key issues relating to changing the content and language of a curriculum. From Save the Children's Education in Emergencies toolkit.

  Objectives and Minimum Standards for UNHCR-Funded Schools
Save the Children - 2003
This chart lists quantitative minimum standards for infrastructure, equipment, materials and class size, which can be used as a framework for developing and adapting indicators to local contexts. Extracted from Save the Children's Education in Emergencies Toolkit.

  Supplies: Types of Supplies, Selection, Procurement and Distribution
Save the Children - 2003
This brief provides an overview of the types of educational supplies that may be needed and/or used (textbooks and supplies for students, the classroom, administration, recreation, clothing and sanitary items) and sets forth criteria to use when selecting supplies and calculating the number of supplies per number of children as well as the amount to budget for supplies. It also provides guidance on procurement and distribution of supplies, including education kits. From Save the Children's Education in Emergencies toolkit.

  Sphere Essential Health Services – Sexual and Reproductive Health Standard 2: HIV and AIDS
The Sphere Project - 2011
The Sphere Humanitarian Charter and minimum standards are aimed at improving the quality of assistance provided to people affected by disasters and improving the accountability of states and humanitarian agencies. This standard articulates that people have access to the minimum set of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services during disasters.

  Practical Tips for Teaching Large Classes: A Teacher's Guide
UNESCO - 2006
This guide presents a variety of practical methods and practices that could be useful for teachers who need to deal with a large class every day. It addresses issues such as how to prepare and plan lessons specifically adapted for large classes, as well as tips to manage the class and to see the large class as a resource rather than a challenge.

  Educational Responses to HIV and AIDS for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Discussion Paper for Decision-Makers
UNESCO and UNHCR - 2007
This paper focuses on the education sector's responses to HIV/AIDS regarding prevention, treatment, care, and support needs of refugees and internally displaced persons. It is intended for policy-makers and implementers in ministries of education, civil society organisations, and donor and development agencies involved in emergency, reconstruction, and development responses. A tool specifying the Key Components of Educational Responses to HIV and AIDS for Refugees and IDPS can be found on pp. 16-24.

 Arabic  |  French 
Arabic: Educational Responses to HIV and AIDS for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Discussion Paper for Decision-Makers

UNESCO and UNHCR - 2007
Réponses éducatives au VIH et au SIDA pour les réfugiés et les personnes déplacées internes: document de travail pour les décideurs

UNESCO and UNHCR - 2007
Ce document de politique présente des arguments en faveur d'une réponse complète au VIH et au Sida par l'intermédiaire de l'éducation, surtout pour ce qui est des réfugiés, des PDIP et des autres personnes déplacées par un conflit.

  Curriculum Content and Review Processes
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter contains a series of strategies and guidance notes for curriculum content and review processes (pp. 9-21), which includes a list of curriculum elements by content area. It also contains a list of sensitivity criteria that can be used during a textbook review process (p. 28) and a series of lessons learned from Rwanda with regard to the process of curriculum revision (pp. 29-30). Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Education for Life Skills: Peace, Human Rights and Citizenship
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter contains a series of strategies and guidance notes to help learners to develop constructive non-violent behaviours (pp. 128-43) as well as a chart comparing intervention models for behavioural skills and values development (p. 148-9), which articulates advantages and typical problems associated with each model. Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Environmental Education
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter presents a series of strategies and guidance notes for creating new patterns of behaviour towards the environment and providing people with skills to protect and improve the environment (pp. 87-93). It also contains a list of seven topics in refugee environmental education programmes (pp. 94-5) and a list of key points on environmental education for formal as well as non-formal awareness raising (pp. 95-100). Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Health and Hygiene Education
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter provides a series of strategies and guidance notes for equipping students and teachers to prevent disease through conducting a review of health-education programming in order to prepare best practice guidelines for health education providers; assessing health education needs and developing curricula/programmes using the results; conducting health education campaigns; and developing an education strategy for security, protection, administration and other personnel who come into contact with youth. Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  HIV Prevention Education
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter presents a series of strategies and guidance notes for implementing HIV/AIDS Preventive Education (pp. 59-70) and also contains advice on the activities and methods used for teaching about HIV/AIDS (p. 76) as well as a chart examining where to place life-skills-based education (including HIV/AIDS) within the curriculum and articulating the advantages and disadvantages of each approach (pp. 76-78). Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Landmine Awareness
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter focuses on ensuring that programmes provide information and knowledge that is reflected in safe behaviours with regard to landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), and securing community involvement in such programmes. In addition to a series of suggested strategies, and guidance for their implemention, there is a Needs Analysis Exercise (pp. 118-20) that can be used to identify key topics when designing mine risk education programmes and can be carried out using a number of methods. Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Sample Management Matrix
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
The sample management matrix on page 147 provides a useful framework for understanding and analysing the function of different levels of the education bureaucracy regarding a given issue. The matrix is focused on the issue of curriculum, and can be adapted in order to develop a coherent and coordinated strategy to address this or other issues. Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  Textbooks, Educational Materials and Teaching Aids
UNESCO IIEP - 2010
This chapter contains a series of strategies and guidance notes for providing quality, relevant textbooks, educational materials and teaching aids (pp. 182-94), a list of emergency, interim and development options for decision-making on learning materials (p. 195) and a matrix outlining the advantages and disadvantages of education kits (p. 196-7). Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  The Psychosocial Care and Protection of Children in Emergencies: Teacher Training Manual
UNICEF - 2009
This manual provides teacher-training materials to promote greater understanding of the impact of and effective responses to the psychosocial impact of emergencies on learners. The aim of this training is to improve the psychosocial well being of children in emergency environments.

  Emergency Curriculum and Training Planning Tool
UNICEF - 2006
This matrix provides the framework for an adaptable emergency curriculum planning tool that can be used to assess what is needed to develop a basic core programme for literacy and numeracy; for psychosocial healing; for recreation, sports and expression activities; for early childhood development; and for other emergency themes. From UNICEF's Education in Emergencies Resource Toolkit.

  Emergency Curriculum Themes
UNICEF - 2006
This brief includes a list of and guidance on possible emergency education themes: psychosocial support, environmental awareness, HIV/AIDS, peace and reconciliation, reintegration of child soldiers, mine risk awareness, waterborne diseases, health, hygiene, nutrition and sanitation, and girls' education, gender equity and social inclusion. From UNICEF's Education in Emergencies Resource Toolkit.

  Increasing the Use of Teaching and Learning Materials
USAID - 2002
This chart and its accompanying questions can be adapted for different local contexts to help educators and administrators to understand why teaching and learning materials might not be used at their school, to think through how the materials are stored and protected from damage and to brainstorm ways of increasing the use of teaching and learning materials in the school. Taken from USAID's 'In My Classroom: A Guide to Reflective Practice'.