Reference Guide on External Education Financing
Implementation Tools

  Toolkit on Education Financing
ActionAid and Education International - 2009
This toolkit, addressed to national coalitions, teacher unions, NGOs and others, focuses on helping agencies build a strong campaign for education financing adapted to each unique national context.

  A Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of the Delivery of Education Aid in Fragile States
Berry, C. - 2009
This paper analyses how four approaches to delivering education aid (sector-wide approaches, trust funds, social funds and UN-led approaches) have impacted education sector outcomes, particularly in the context of fragile states, and identifies what can be learnt about the effective delivery of education aid from each of these examples.

  INEE Framing Paper: Education Finance in States Affected by Fragility
Brannelly, L., and Ndaruhutse, S., INEE and CfBT Education Trust - 2008
This framing paper for the 2008 INEE Policy Roundtable seeks to address questions about the current level of donor funding for education in fragile situations, whether existing funding mechanisms respond appropriately to needs in such contexts and how funding mechanisms contribute to state-building, harmonisation and alignment.

  Donors' Engagement: Supporting Education in Fragile and Conflict-affected States
Brannelly, L., S. Ndaruhutse, and C. Rigaud, IIEP and CfBT Education Trust - 2009
This book examines the changing nature of how donors support education in fragile and conflict-affected states and outlines lessons learnt and emerging good practices.

  Donors' Engagement: Supporting Education in Fragile and Conflict-affected States: Policy Brief
Brannelly, L., S. Ndaruhutse, and C. Rigaud, IIEP and CfBT Education Trust - 2009
A brief policy note based on the above-cited book.

  Aid to Fragile States: Do Donors Help or Hinder?
Browne, S. - 2007
This paper examines aid relationships in three fragile situations: Burma, Rwanda, and Zambia.

  Mid-Term Evaluation of the EFA Fast Track Initiative
Cambridge Education, Mokoro Ltd. and Oxford Policy Management - 2010
The evaluation report looks at how effective the FTI has been in facilitating progress towards achievement of universal primary education and makes a series of recommendations to further improve future partnership programming and effectiveness.

  FTI and Fragile States and Fragile Partnerships: Mid-Term Evaluation of the EFA Fast Track Initiative
Dom, C., Cambridge Education, Mokoro Ltd. and Oxford Policy Management - 2009
This paper, part of the Mid-Term Evaluation of the EFA FTI, reviews the education and fragility discourse that has developed and examines FTI''s engagement with these issues.

  The EFA-FTI Modality Guidelines
EFA Fast Track Initiative - 2008
The purpose of this guide is to assist local education groups in deciding how to choose the most suitable funding modality to support education sector plan objectives in a given country, as well as to support the decision-making process regarding the choice of supervising entity for the funding.

  Delivering Money: Cash Transfer Mechanisms in Emergencies
Harvey, P., K. Haver, J. Hoffmann, and B. Murphy, Save the Children UK - 2010
This report documents lessons learnt from previous experience and provides guidance for project managers who need to make choices about how best to deliver cash to people in need.

  INEE Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery
INEE - 2009
These Guidance Notes address a critical challenge to quality education by providing a framework for discussing the complex issues surrounding the compensation of teachers based on lessons learnt from practice around the world. The Guidance Notes provide guidance on the following three themes: Policy and Coordination of Teacher Compensation, Management and Financial Aspects of Teacher Compensation, Teachers' Motivation, Support and Supervision as Forms of Non-Monetary Teacher Compensation.

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Notes d'orientation de l'INEE sur la rémunération des enseignants dans les états fragiles, les situations de déplacement et de réadaptation post-crise

INEE - 2009
Ces notes d'orientation répondent à une difficulté importante pour une éducation de qualité en fournissant un cadre pour la discussion des questions complexes concernant la rémunération des enseignants, selon les leçons apprises de la pratique partout dans le monde.
Notas de orientación de la INEE sobre la remuneración de docentes en estados frágiles, situaciones de desplazamiento y recuperación poscrisis

INEE - 2009
Estas notas de orientación frente a un desafío crítico para la educación de calidad proporcionando un marco para la discusión de los temás complejos alrededor de remuneracion docente basado en las lecciones aprendidas de la práctica en todo el mundo. Las notas de orientación ofrecen guía sobre los temás siguientes: la política y la coordinación de la remuneración de docentes; los aspectos administrativos y financieros de la remuneración de docentes; y la motivación, el apoyo y la supervisión de los docentes como formás de remuneración no monetaria.

  Common Funds for Sector Support
Kizilbash Agha, Z., and T. Williamson, ODI - 2008
This briefing paper presents evidence of the effectiveness of different aid modalities, investigating in particular the effect of "transitional" modalities on a country's systems and capacities.

  Aid Instruments in Fragile States
Leader, N., and P. Colenso, UK Department for International Development - 2005
This paper describes the limitations of the current approach to selecting aid instruments for fragile situations and the emerging understanding about the use of such instruments in these contexts.

  Re-thinking Aid Policy in Protracted Crises
Macrae, J., and A. Harmer, ODI - 2005
This short article captures the shift in thinking over the past decade regarding the relationship between relief and development.

  Mutual Accountability at the Country Level: A Concept and Emerging Good Practice Paper
ODI - 2009
This background paper explores the issue of mutual accountability as seen in emerging good practices in 19 countries, with a special focus on Rwanda, Mozambique, and Vietnam.

  Education Aid in Fragile States: Delivering it Effectively
ODI - 2007
This paper develops a framework for assessing the effectiveness of education aid in fragile states and uses it to evaluate examples of education support across a range of fragile contexts.

  International Good Practice Principles for Country-led Division of Labour and Complementarity
OECD - 2009
These eight good practice principles apply to in-country division of labour between partner countries and donors to streamline and coordinate donor assistance in ways that are effective, tailored and country-specific. More information is available at

  Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations
OECD - 2007
These principles are intended to help international actors foster constructive engagement between national and international stakeholders in countries with problems of weak governance and conflict, and during episodes of temporary fragility in stronger-performing countries.

  The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
OECD - 2005
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness is an historic agreement to improve the quality of aid, signed in Paris in 2005 by more than 100 donors, developing countries and NGOs. The declaration's commitments and targets reflect the lessons donors and partner countries have learnt about how to make aid more effective in reducing poverty.

  Be a Better Donor: Practical Recommendations for Humanitarian Aid
Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) - 2009
This guide presents a summary of recommendations for three essential actors: donors, national disaster response and risk management organisations and the communications media, with the aim of bringing to light behaviours and myths which hinder or harm the process of donations and the efficient use of these donations to alleviate the consequences of disaster.

  Last in Line, Last in School 2009: Donor Trends in Meeting Education Needs in Countries Affected by Conflict and Emergencies
Save the Children - 2009
The annual "Last in Line, Last in School" report by Save the Children identifies key areas of policy and practice to be reformed in order to ensure that children in conflict-affected and fragile states (CAFS) get an education. The third annual report examines recent trends in donor support. Its broad conclusion is that, although donors have increased their focus on meeting the education needs of children in these countries and situations, there is still much work to be done.

  Last in Line, Last in School 2008: How Donors can Support Education for Children Affected by Conflict and Emergencies
Save the Children - 2008
The 2008 report demonstrates the urgent need for donors to increase aid for education in CAFS. It highlights the need for an international aid architecture that ensures long-term and sustainable aid for education during periods of conflict and emergency.

  Last in Line, Last in School 2007: How Donors are Failing Children in Conflict-affected Fragile States
Save the Children - 2007
The 2007 'Last in Line, Last in School' report reveals that donors give the least amount of education aid to the countries that need it most. Conflict-affected countries receive less than a fifth of global education aid, despite being home to more than half of the world's children missing out on an education. The report identifies key areas of policy and practise that need to change in order to give them a quality education.

  What Drives Donor Financing of Basic Education?
Steer, L, and G. Baudienville, ODI - 2010
This project briefing finds that few donors have delivered on their collective promise to support national education programmes with increased and more effective financial support.

  International Humanitarian Financing: Review and comparative assessment of instruments
Stoddard, A., Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance - 2008
This study was commissioned by the Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance for the Good Humanitarian Donorship initiative. It provides an overview of the humanitarian financing landscape, comparing the array of mechanisms currently available to donors, and identifies important considerations for donors and their partners as they develop their future funding strategies.

  Accra Agenda for Action
Third High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness - 2008
The Accra Agenda for Action was endorsed by donors and partner governments to accelerate and deepen implementation of the Paris Declaration on Aid Affectiveness (2005).

  Appropriate and Effective Financing Modalities and Channels for Education in Fragile Situations
Thomson, A., and N. Karachiwalla, INEE, World Bank and Oxford Policy Management - 2009
This paper, based on six country case studies (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sierra Leone and Somalia), examines how different financing modalities respond to different aspects of fragility, the objectives of different stakeholders, the preconditions for accessing different types of financing modalities and the implications of modality choice for governments, development partners and service providers.

  EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010: Reaching the Marginalized
UNESCO - 2010
The 2010 Global Monitoring Report (GMR) explores the factors that perpetuate marginalisation in education, along with the success – or failure – of public policy responses, focusing on two core areas: (i) access to schooling and learning opportunities and (ii) teaching, learning processes and achievements.

  Budget and Financial Management
This chapter includes charts that can be used to promote transparency in resource distribution and use (pp. 198-9), a matrix for analysing the distribution of funds across educational levels (p. 200) and a summary of some of the main practices of corruption within the education sector and their possible impact on access, quality, equity and ethics (pp. 201-2). Extracted from UNESCO IIEP's Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction.

  What Does an Effective Multilateral Donor Look Like?
Wathne, C., and E. Hedger, ODI - 2010
This project briefing summarises research findings on the perceptions of recipient stakeholders regarding multilateral donor effectiveness.

  Education's Hardest Test: Scaling up Aid in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Winthrop, R., S. Ndaruhutse, J. Dolan and A. Adams, Brookings Institution and CfBT Education Trust - 2010
This policy outlook outlines challenges that need to be addressed and provides recommendations for donors and the international community to support education in fragile and conflict-affected states.

  Financing for All: How to Include Fragile and Conflict-affected States in the Education FTI
Winthrop, R., S. Ndaruhutse, J. Dolan and A. Adams, Brookings Institution and CfBT Education Trust - 2010
This policy outlook outlines seven ways that the EFA FTI needs to evolve so that it can more effectively and consistently address the education needs of fragile and conflict-affected states.